Shoveller's Guide to the Latin Language


Hey, Shov, this is my page!
I know, Heckery, but I need it to help the nice people of Neopia learn about Latin.
Whatever. Just don't break anything!
...I'll try not to? I guess?



I swear, if I come back and my page looks like this, you're dead.


Hello, guest! Welcome to my guide to the Latin language! I assume you're here because you want to come up with some awesome names for your pets. Well, you've come to the right place! Many Latin words are translated as multiple English ones, so you can have entire phrases fit into the 20 character limit. A lot of them don't exceed 10!

To help those of you reading this, I'll put Nouns in Red, Verbs in Blue, Adjectives in Purple, Adverbs in Gold, and leave any other words in black.

Let's start with Nouns.




NOUNS
I assume you know what a Noun is. If you don't, I'll sum it up: It's a person, place, thing, or idea. Chair, basement, human, Chicago, school, etc. (Side lesson: etc actually comes from Latin "et cetera," meaning "and things of that sort"!)

In English, most people don't really think of nouns changing except to put it in plural. In Latin, on the other hand, nouns change depending on how they're used in a sentence. For example:

Puella in sedem sedet.
The girl sits in the chair.

The subject, puella, is in what is called the Nominative case. Nouns are put in the Nominative when they are the subject of the sentence. Direct objects take on the Accusative form of the noun. Sedem is the Accusative form of sedes, and is written that way because it is the Direct Object.

Before I show you more, I would like to show you the Declension Chart. The Declension Chart tells you how to change the endings, or decline, nouns being used in certain ways.

NOUN DECLENSION CHART
Singular Forms
First Declension
(Feminine)
Second Declension
(Masculine/Masculine Second)
Third Declension
(Other/Other Second)
Nominativeaus/umNo set ending
Genitiveaeiis
Dativeaeoi
Accusativeamumem/No set ending
Ablativeaoe

Plural Forms
First Declension
(Feminine)
Second Declension
(Masculine/Masculine Second)
Third Declension
(Other/Other Second)
Nominativeaei/aes/a
Genitivearumorumum
Dativeisisibus
Accusativeasos/aes/a
Ablativeisisibus


Let me guess, you sat there for a few seconds, thinking "Oh, DDKyuubi, what in Neopia is that!?" Well, maybe not exactly that, but something along those lines. Not to worry, I will explain every part!

First I will start with the difference between the declensions. All words I will put on this page fall into the First, Second, or Third Declensions (Fourth and Fifth are rarely used, so I won't get into them). In the Vocabulary Section, a Noun will be written like this:

Puella, puellae: Girl

The first word is the Nominative form, and the second is the Genitive. The Genitive is used to determine what endings to use on any noun.

Some nouns don't follow those three declension patterns, and instead have a few changes to a certain declension. These nouns fall into the Second version of the declension. If a word follows the second ending in the chart rather than the first, the word will be written in the Vocabulary section as:

Tignum, tigni (n.): Beam

Just pay attention to whether the noun falls into a Second version of a declension when declining the noun.

I hope you know the difference between Singular and Plural, so I won't go into that. Instead, I'll get into the Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative forms of nouns.

Nominative: Used when the noun is the Subject of the sentence.

Genitive: Generally words in this form are translated as "of the word." For example, one would say:

Unus puerorum est fortis.
One of the boys is brave.

There are three types of Genitives: Description, Number, and Ownership. The above is a Genitive of Number, because Unus, the subject, tells how many boys are brave. Saying "the sword of the warrior" would be a Genitive of Ownership. The Genitive of Description is rarely used.

Dative: Directly translated as "to word," it acts as the Indirect object.

Puer duxi canem tabernae
The boy led the dogs to the inn.

The one word tabernae, being in the Dative case, is translated as "to the inn."

Accusative: Used when the noun is the Direct Object of the sentence. Using the example above, canem is the Accusative form of canis, and is declined as such because it is the Direct Object of the sentence (what the boy is leading).

Ablative: Used in multiple situations when the sentence is elaborating on a certain description. The most common is the Prepositional Ablative, used after the prepositional words:

a/ab: from, by
in: in, on
ex: from, out of
de: from, down from, concerning, about
pro: in front of, for, in return for, before
sub: below, under
sine: without
The word for with is now considered a dirty word in the English language. Unfortunately this is also the case with the Latin word for six.

Others include the Ablative of Means (gladio: with a sword, by means of a sword), Agent (use with a/ab, says who did the passive verb), Time of When ((illo) die: on (that) day), Comparison (Romani fortiores Gracis: Romans are stronger than Greeks), and Cause (translated as "on account of" or "because of").

Hopefully that made sense to everybody.
Wow, that was... geeky.
Heckery! What're you doing here?
Just making sure nothing got broken yet...


It will happen.





VERBS

Verbs, to quickly state it in case it isn't widely known, are words that express action. Run, see, hear, and eat are all verbs.

All verbs, in both English and Latin, are put in certain tenses to express when the action is taking place. They are also conjugated to show who is doing the action. For example:

Puer portat pecuniam.
The boy carries the money.

In the sentence, it is the boy carrying the money, so the verb portat is conjugated into the he/she/it category, and since the boy is carrying the money in the present, it is in the present tense. That probably makes very little sense, but before I continue, let me get the tables down.

VERB CONJUGATION CHARTS
Infinitive
To (word)
First Second Third Fourth
areereereire


Present Tense
I (word), you (word), etc.
Singular Plural
IoWemus
YousYou Alltis
He/She/IttThemnt
Note: Third conjugation verbs change their stem ending e to i in You, He, We, and You All, and Third and Fourth conjugation verbs change their stem for Them to u.

Imperfect Tense
I was (word)ing, you were (word)ing, etc.
Singular Plural
IbamWebamus
YoubasYou Allbatis
He/She/ItbatThembant
Note: Add e to the stem for Fourth conjugation verbs.

Perfect Tense
I (word)ed, you (word)ed, etc.
Singular Plural
IiWeimus
YouistiYou Allistis
He/She/ItitThemerunt


Pluperfect Tense
I had(word)ed, you had (word)ed, etc.
Singular Plural
IeramWeeramus
YouerasYou Alleratis
He/She/IteratThemerant


Future Tense
First and Second Infinitive
I will/shall (word), you will/shall (word), etc.
Singular Plural
IboWebimus
YoubisYou Allbitis
He/She/ItbitThembunt


Future Tense
Third Infinitive
I will/shall (word), you will/shall (word), etc.
Singular Plural
IbamWebemus
YoubesYou Allbetis
He/She/ItbetThembent


Future Tense
Fourth Infinitive
I will/shall (word), you will/shall (word), etc.
Singular Plural
IamWeemus
YouesYou Allentis
He/She/ItetThement

So, did that make sense? If no, then you're with most of the population. I will elaborate, first by introducing Principal Parts of verbs.

The Principal Parts of any verb shows the part of the word you put the endings on, or the stem of the verb. For example:

Habito, habitare, habitavi: Live

Habito is the First Person Singular ("I") form of the Present Tense. Habitare is the Infinitive form, and by looking at it you can see the conjugation the verb belongs to. In this case it is in the First Conjugation. By removing the ending, "are," we get the Present Stem. The Present Stem is what you attach the endings onto (like adding "o" to make habito) for all tenses but Perfect and Pluperfect. The last, habitavi, is the First Person Singular of the Perfect Tense. By removing the ending ("i" as the chart tells us), we get the Perfect Stem. The Perfect Stem is used to make the Perfect and Pluperfect Tenses.

Canis tacebat.
The dog was silent.

Senex dormivit.
The old man slept.

Now you're probably wondering: "Well, now I can talk about things, but what if I want to order someone to do something?" No worries, I'll get into that now. It's actually really easy!

Let's pretend we want someone to come. The word for "come" is venio, venire, veni. Right now those words read "I come," "to come," and "I came." To get the commanding, or Imperative, form, take the second principal part (the Infinitive), in this case venire. Chop off the "re," and you have a command.

Veni!
Come!

To make the command plural, just add "te."

Venite!
(You all) come!

If you want to tell someone not to do something, put the word Noli before it (It is the the Imperative of "do not want;" the translation literally means "Be unwilling to...").

Noli veni!
Do not come!

If you want to tell multiple people not to come, put "te" after both words.

Nolite venite!
(You all) do not come!

That's my summary of Verbs! Made sense, I hope.

Abi! Abi!
Err... what?
It means go away!
Glad to see you're learning, too...



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